Monday, December 8, 2014

Impaired sense of comfort: Pain related to Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)


Nursing Care Plan for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a state of bacterial infection in the urinary tract. (Enggram, Barbara, 1998)

Signs and Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Signs and symptoms of UTI: at the bottom are:
  • Pain is often, and a burning sensation when urinating.
  • Spasame the bladder and suprapubic area.
  • Hematuria.
  • Back pain can occur.
Signs and symptoms of UTI: at the top are:
  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Pelvic pain and waist.
  • Pain when urinating.
  • Malaise.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
Impaired sense of comfort: pain related to inflammation and infection of the urethra, bladder and other urinary tract structures.

Expected outcomes:
Pain is reduced / lost during and after urination.

Intervention:

1. Monitor discoloration of urine, urination pattern monitor, input and output every 8 hours and monitor the results of urinalysis reset
Rational: to identify indications of progress or deviations from expected results

2. Make a note of the location, the length of the intensity scale (1-10) pain.
Rational: help evaluate the site of obstruction and cause pain

3. Provide convenient measures, such as massage.
Rational: increase relaxation, decrease muscle tension.

4. Provide perineal care
Rationale: to prevent contamination of the urethra

5. If dipaang catheter, catheter care 2 times per day.
Rational: Catheter provides the bacteria to enter the bladder and urinary tract to ride.

6. Distract the nice things
Rational: relaxation, avoid too feel the pain.

Acute Pain (Headache) related to Hyponatremia

Nursing Care Plan - Acute Pain (Headache) related to Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is defined as a low sodium concentration in the blood. Too little sodium in the diet alone is very rarely the cause of hyponatremia, although it can promote hyponatremia indirectly and has been associated with Ecstasy-induced hyponatremia. Sodium loss can lead to a state of low blood volume, which serves as a signal for the release of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).

Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include nausea and vomiting, headache, short-term memory loss, confusion, lethargy, fatigue, loss of appetite, restlessness, irritability, muscle weakness, spasms or cramps, seizures, and decreased consciousness or coma.

Acute Pain : the head related to hyponatremia

Purpose:
After the act of nursing, pain is reduced / lost,

Expected outcomes:
  • Looks calm and relaxed.
  • No complaints of pain.
  • Exhibit a pain management.


Intervention:
1. Assess vital signs.
R / To determine the general condition of the patient.

2. Observation of pain, note the location and intensity (scale 0-10). Note the factors that accelerate and signs of nonverbal pain.
R / Assist in determining the need for and effectiveness of pain management programs.

3. Use words that are consistent with the patient's age and developmental level to assess the patient's pain.
R / To facilitate the patient to understand the words of the nurse, and make it easier to collect data from patients.

4. Help the patient to identify the actions meet the needs of a sense of comfort that has been successfully carried out, such as distraction, relaxation or compress warm / cold.
R / success of overcoming the pain that has been done can be applied back to reduce the pain suffered by patients.

5. Provide a comfortable position for the patient.
R / comfortable position can make the patient forget the pain.

6. Help the patient to focus more on activities than pain / discomfort with the transferor through television, radio or visits.
R / giving activity in patients will help the patient to forget the pain.

7. Control of environmental factors that can affect the patient's response to discomfort (eg, room temperature, light and noise).
R / A quiet environment will help the patient to relax.

8. Teach management techniques of relaxation and deep breathing.
R / Increase relaxation, reduce muscle tension.